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                Benzoesure Produkt Beschreibung

                Benzoic acid Struktur
                65-85-0
                • CAS-Nr.65-85-0
                • Bezeichnung:Benzoesure
                • Englisch Name:Benzoic acid
                • Synonyma:Benzoesure;Benzolcarbons?ure;Phenylcarbons?ure
                  ha1;e210;210;KRT31;and he;KRTHA1;PUROX B;NA-9094;NSC 149;ai3-0310
                • CBNumber:CB8698780
                • Summenformel:C7H6O2
                • Molgewicht:122.12
                • MOL-Datei:65-85-0.mol
                Benzoesure physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
                • Schmelzpunkt: :121-125 °C(lit.)
                • Siedepunkt: :249 °C(lit.)
                • Dichte :1.08
                • Dampfdichte :4.21 (vs air)
                • Dampfdruck :10 mm Hg ( 132 °C)
                • Brechungsindex :1.504
                • FEMA  :2131 | BENZOIC ACID
                • Flammpunkt: :250 °F
                • storage temp.  :Store at RT.
                • L?slichkeit : soluble, clear, colorless (95% ethanol, 1gm/3mL)
                • pka :4.19(at 25℃)
                • Aggregatzustand :Solid
                • Farbe :White to yellow-beige to orange
                • PH :2.5-3.5 (H2O, 20℃)(saturated solution)
                • Wasserl?slichkeit :Slightly soluble. 0.34 g/100 mL
                • Merck  :14,1091
                • JECFA Number :850
                • BRN  :636131
                • Henry's Law Constant :(x 10-8 atm?m3/mol): 7.02 (calculated, U.S. EPA, 1980a)
                • Stabilit?t: :Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, alkalies.
                • InChIKey :WPYMKLBDIGXBTP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
                • CAS Datenbank :65-85-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
                • NIST chemische Informationen :Benzoic acid(65-85-0)
                • EPA chemische Informationen :Benzoic acid(65-85-0)
                Sicherheit

                Benzoic acid Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

                • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD WEISSE KRISTALLE ODER PULVER.
                • PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN Staubexplosion der pulverisierten oder granulierten Substanz in Gemischen mit Luft m?glich.
                • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Schwache S?ure in w?ssriger L?sung. Reagiert mit Oxidationsmitteln.
                • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
                  MAK: IIb (nicht festgelegt, aber Informationen vorhanden); (DFG 2005).
                • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den K?rper durch Inhalation und durch Verschlucken.
                • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Nur ungenügende Angaben vorhanden über die Geschwindigkeit, mit der eine gesundheitssch?dliche Konzentration in der Luft beim Verdampfen bei 20°C erreicht wird.
                • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
                  Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atmungsorgane. Die Substanz kann bei Kontakt einen nicht-allergischen Hautausschlag verursachen.
                • LECKAGE Verschüttetes Material in Kunstsstoffbeh?ltern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Gesichtsschutz benutzen. Pers?nliche Schutzausrüstung: Schutzkleidung. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen.
                • R-S?tze Betriebsanweisung: R22:Gesundheitssch?dlich beim Verschlucken.
                  R36:Reizt die Augen.
                  R42/43:Sensibilisierung durch Einatmen und Hautkontakt m?glich.
                  R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
                  R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
                  R63:Kann das Kind im Mutterleib m?glicherweise sch?digen.
                  R43:Sensibilisierung durch Hautkontakt m?glich.
                  R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
                  R45:Kann Krebs erzeugen.
                  R41:Gefahr ernster Augensch?den.
                  R37/38:Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
                  R20/21/22:Gesundheitssch?dlich beim Einatmen,Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
                • S-S?tze Betriebsanweisung: S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
                  S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn m?glich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
                  S37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
                  S24:Berührung mit der Haut vermeiden.
                  S22:Staub nicht einatmen.
                  S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
                  S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
                  S23:Gas/Rauch/Dampf/Aerosol nicht einatmen(geeignete Bezeichnung(en) vom Hersteller anzugeben).
                  S53:Exposition vermeiden - vor Gebrauch besondere Anweisungen einholen.
                  S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
                • Aussehen Eigenschaften C7H6O2. Farbloses, geruchloses Pulver oder Plättchen.
                • Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken. Reizt die Augen. Führt zu Magen-Darm-Störungen.
                  Nicht mit Fluor oder Sauerstoff in Berührung bringen.
                  LDLo (oral, Mensch): 500 mg/kg.
                • Schutzma?nahmen und Verhaltensregeln Geeignete Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz.
                • Verhalten im Gefahrfall Trocken aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Nachreinigen.
                  Kohlendioxid, Wasser, Pulver.
                  Brennbar. Im Brandfall Entstehung gefährlicher Dämpfe möglich.
                • Erste Hilfe Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abwaschen.
                  Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten ausspülen. Sofort Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
                  Nach Einatmen: Frischluft.
                  Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser trinken lassen. Erbrechen auslösen. Arzt hinzuziehen.
                  Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung entfernen.
                  Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

                • Sachgerechte Entsorgung Als feste Laborchemikalienabfälle.
                • Beschreibung Benzoic acid is a colorless, crystalline solid also known as benzenecarboxylic acid. It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid, with a carboxyl group (-COOH) bonded directly to the benzene ring. It is found naturally in the benzoin resin of a number of plants.
                • Chemische Eigenschaften Benzoic acid (pronunciation : C7H6O2 or C6H5COOH , is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. The name derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time the only source for benzoic acid. Its salts are used as a food preservative and benzoic acid is an important precursor for the synthesis of many other organic substances. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates .
                • Chemische Eigenschaften Benzoic acid is almost odorless or exhibits a faint urine, almond odor and a sweet–sour to acrid taste. Sodium benzoate as an article of commerce is in the form of a white powder or flakes. It can be mixed dry into bulk liquids and dissolves promptly. The pH range for optimum microbial inhibition by benzoic acid is 2.5 to 4.0, which is lower than that of sorbic acid or propionic acid. Thus, benzoates are well adapted for the preservation of food, which are acid, or readily acidified, such as carbonated beverages, fruit juices, cider, pickles and sauerkraut.
                • Chemische Eigenschaften Benzoic acid,C6H5COOH, also known as benzene carboxylic acid and phenyl formic acid,is a colorless, monoclinic crystalline solid that has a melting point of 122.4"C and sublimes readily at 100·C. It is an aromatic carboxylic acid that is slightly soluble in water and moderately soluble in alcohol and ether. It is used as a preservative and its derivatives are valuable in medicine, commerce, and industry.
                • Chemische Eigenschaften Benzoic acid is a white crystalline or flaky solid with a faint, pleasant odor.
                • Chemische Eigenschaften Benzoic acid occurs as feathery, light, white or colorless crystals or powder. It is essentially tasteless and odorless or with a slight characteristic odor suggestive of benzoin.
                • Physikalische Eigenschaften Colorless to white needles, scales, or powder with a faint benzoin or benzaldehyde-like odor. Shaw et al. (1970) reported a taste threshold in water of 85 ppm.
                • Occurrence Reported found in fresh apple, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), strawberry fruit, cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), butter, boiled and cooked beef, pork fat, white wine, black tea, green tea, fresh plum, mushroom, Bourbon vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews), and other natural sources. Reported as being a constituent of various oils, resins and flower absolutes; hyacinth, tuberose, neroli bigarade, Chinese cinnamon, cinnamon leaves, anise, vertiver, ylang-ylang, Tolu balsam and clove; it is contained in fairly sizable amounts in gum benzoin, from which benzoic acid is extracted by sublimation.
                • History Benzoic acid was first isolated from the dry distillation of benzoin by Blaise de Vigenère (1523–1596) in the 16th century. Friedrich W?hler (1800–1882) and Justus von Liebig (1803–1873) prepared benzoic acid from oxidizing bitter almond oil (benzaldehyde) in 1832 and determined the formula for each of these compounds. They proposed that bitter almond oil, C7H6O, and benzoic acid were derivatives from the benzoyl radical, C7H5O; the radical theory was a major early theory in the development of organic chemistry.
                • Verwenden Sodium benzoate is an important benzoic acid derivative produced industrially by neutralization of benzoic acid using sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate solution. Calcium benzoate, potassium benzoate, and other benzoate salts are also produced. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (C6H5COONa) are used as food preservatives and added to foods, juices, and beverages that are acidic.
                • Verwenden Calorimetry
                  Benzoic acid is the most commonly used chemical standard to determine the heat of capacity of a bomb calorimeter.
                  Feed stock
                  Benzoic acid is used to make a large number of chemicals, important examples of which are :
                  Benzoyl chloride, C6H5C(O)Cl, is obtained by treatment of benzoic with thionyl chloride, phosgene or one of the chlorides of phosphorus. C6H5C(O) Cl is an important starting material for several benzoic acid derivates like benzyl benzoate, which is used in artificial flavours and insect repellents.
                  Food preservative
                  Benzoic acid and its salts are used as a food preservatives, represented by the E-numbers E210 , E211 , E212 , and E213 . Benzoic acid inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and some bacteria. It is either added directly or created from reactions with its sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid in to the cell.
                  Medicinal
                  Benzoic acid is a constituent of Whitfiel's ointment which is used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases such as tinea, ringworm, and athlete's foot. As the principal component of benzoin resin, benzoic acid is also a major ingredient in both tincture of benzoin and Fria's balsam. Such products have a long history of use as topical antiseptics and inhalant decongestants.
                  Benzoic acid was used as an expectorant, analgesic, and antiseptic in the early 20th century.
                • Verwenden benzoic acid is a preservative primarily for use against molds and yeasts. Its performance is classified only as fair against bacteria. Benzoic acid is used in concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1 percent. Although it has a low sensitizing rate, it may cause an allergic reaction in persons sensitive to similar chemicals.
                • Verwenden Benzoic Acid is a preservative that occurs naturally in some foods such as cranberries, prunes, and cinnamon. it is most often used in the form of sodium benzoate because of the low aqueous solubility of the free acid. sodium benzoate is 180 times as soluble in water at 25°c as benzoic acid. the salt in solution is converted to the acid which is the active form. the optimum ph range for microbial inhi- bition is ph 2.5–4.0. it is used in acid foods such as carbonated bev- erages, fruit juices, and pickles. it is also termed benzoate of soda.
                • Verwenden keratolytic
                • Definition ChEBI: A compound comprising a benzene ring core carrying a carboxylic acid substituent.
                • Vorbereitung Methode Although benzoic acid occurs naturally, it is produced commercially by several synthetic methods. One process involves the continuous liquid-phase oxidation of toluene in the presence of a cobalt catalyst at 150–2008℃ and 0.5–5.0 MPa (5.0–50.0 atm) pressure to give a yield of approximately 90% benzoic acid.
                  Benzoic acid can also be produced commercially from benzotrichloride or phthalic anhydride. Benzotrichloride, produced by chlorination of toluene, is reacted with 1 mole of benzoic acid to yield 2 moles of benzoyl chloride. The benzoyl chloride is then converted to 2 moles of benzoic acid by hydrolysis. Yield is 75–80%.
                  In another commercial process, phthalic anhydride is converted to benzoic acid, in about an 85% yield, by hydrolysis in the presence of heat and chromium and disodium phthalates.
                  Crude benzoic acid is purified by sublimation or recrystallization.
                • synthetische By oxidation of toluene with nitric acid or sodium bichromate or from benzonitrile.
                • Vorbereitung Methode Benzoic acid can be synthesized using a number of processes. The industrial method is by the partial oxidation of toluene (C6H5CH3) in liquid phase using manganese, cobalt, vanadium-titanium, or other catalysts. The reaction is carried out at temperatures between 150°C and 200°C. It can also be prepared by the oxidation of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol (C6H5CH2OH), and cinnamic acid (C6H5CHCHO2) or by the oxidation of benzene with concentrated sulfuric acid. The hydrolysis of benzonitrile (C6H5CN) produces benzoic acid. It is also produced by the carboxylation of a Grignard reagent followed by acidification; typically carbonation occurs by pouring a Grignard ether over dry ice.
                • Vorbereitung Methode Industrial preparations
                  Benzoic acid is produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. The process is catalyzed by cobalt or manganese naphthenates. The process uses cheap raw materials, proceeds in high yield, and is considered environmentally green.
                  Laboratory synthesis
                  Benzoic acid is cheap and readily available, so the laboratory synthesis of benzoic acid is mainly practiced for its pedagogical value. It is a common undergraduate preparation.
                  For all syntheses, benzoic acid can be purified by recrystallization from water because of its high solubility in hot water and poor solubility in cold water. The avoidance of organic solvents for the recrystallization makes this experiment particularly safe. Other possible recrystallization solvents include acetic acid (anhydrous or aqueous), benzene, acetone, petroleum ether, and a mixture of ethanol and water. The solubility of benzoic acid in over 40 solvents with references to original sources can be found as part of the Open Notebook Science Challenge.
                • Reaktionen Reactions of benzoic acid can occur at either the aromatic ring or the carboxyl group :
                  Aromatic ring
                  Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction will take place mainly in 3- position due to the electron-withdrawing carboxylic group; i.e. benzoic acid is meta directing.
                  The second substitution reaction (on the right) is slower because the first nitro group is deactivating. Conversely, if an activating group (electron - donating) was introduced (e.g., alkyl), a second substitution reaction would occur more readily than the first and the disubstituted product might accumulate to a significant extent.
                  Carboxyl group
                  All the reactions mentioned for carboxylic acids are also possible for benzoic acid.
                  Benzoic acid esters are the product of the acid catalysed reaction with alcohols. Benzoic acid amides are more easily available by using activated acid derivatives (such as benzoyl chloride) or by coupling reagents used in peptide synthesis like DCC and DMAP.
                  The more active benzoic anhydride is formed by dehydration using acetic anhydride or phosphorus pentoxide.
                  Highly reactive acid derivatives such as acid halides are easily obtained by mixing with halogenation agents like phosphorus chlorides or thionyl chloride.
                  Ortho esters can be obtained by the reaction of alcohols under acidic water free conditions with benzonitrile.
                  Reduction to benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol is possible using DIBAL- H , Li Al H4 or sodium boro hydride.
                  The copper catalyzed decarboxylation of benzoate to benzene may be effected by heating in quinoline. Also, Hunsdiecker decarboxylation can be achieved by forming the silver salt and heating. Benzoic acid can also be decarboxylated by heating with an alkali hydroxide or calcium hydroxide.
                • Biotechnologische Produktion Benzoic acid is exclusively chemically synthesized on an industrial scale. Toluene from petrochemical routes is oxidized in the presence of the catalyst potassium permanganate to benzoic acid . However, a recent study described for the first time a benzoic acid production process by fermentation using Streptomyces maritimus. The production of benzoic acid during cultivation on glucose, starch, and cellobiose has been investigated. The best results have been achieved with product concentrations of 460 mg.L-1 in 6 days using starch as substrate. Additionally, a genetically modified S. maritimus optimized for endo-glucanasesecretion has been tested on phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. A final product concentration of 125 mg.L-1 was observed after 4 days of cultivation.
                • Aroma threshold values 85 ppm.
                • Allgemeine Beschreibung Boric acid,H3B03, also known as boracic acid, orthoboric acid, and sassolite, is a white solid composed of triclinic crystals.It is a derivative of barium oxide and is soluble in water. A white crystalline solid. Slightly soluble in water. The primary hazard is the potential for environmental damage if released. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Used to make other chemicals, as a food preservative, and for other uses.
                • Air & Water Reaktionen Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. The finely powdered dry acid is a significant dust explosion hazard [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 884]. In air very rapid combustion occurs [Wilson, L.Y. et al., J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62(10), p. 902]. Slightly soluble in water.
                • Reaktivit?t anzeigen At high temperature Benzoic acid can react with oxidizing reagents.
                • Hazard Moderately toxic by ingestion. Use restricted to 0.1% in foods.
                • Health Hazard Dust may be irritating to nose and eyes. At elevated temperatures, fumes may cause irritation of eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
                • Brandgefahr Behavior in Fire: Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. Concentrated dust may form explosive mixture.
                • Pharmazeutische Anwendungen Benzoic acid is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals, as an antimicrobial preservative. Greatest activity is seen at pH values between 2.5–4.5.
                  Benzoic acid also has a long history of use as an antifungal agent in topical therapeutic preparations such as Whitfield’s ointment (benzoic acid 6% and salicylic acid 3%).
                • Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung Fungicide, Insecticide: Used in the manufacture of benzoates; plasticizers, benzoyl chloride, alkyd resins, in the manufacture of food preservatives, in use as a dye binder in calico printing; in curing of tobacco, flavors, perfumes, dentifrices, standard in analytical chemistry. Not currently registered for use in the U.S. Benzoic acid is currently used in about a dozen European countries.
                • Handelsname RETARDER BA®; MICROL® Preservative; TENN-PLAS®; RETARDEX®; SALVO LIQUID®; SALVO POWDER®; TULSA®
                • Clinical Use Benzoic acid is a metabolite of benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. These three related compounds are used as preservatives in a variety of products, such as cosmetics, toothpastes, hair products, medication preparations, and emollients, and in foods. They are well-recognized to cause nonimmunological CoU and reactions are concentration-dependent.Both oral intake and cutaneous contact of benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, or sodium benzoate can cause immediate reactions; however, there is a lack of correlation between the two and skin tests should not be used to predict sensitivity to oral intake of these preservatives.
                  Immediate reactions to the oral ingestion of these preservatives are rare. Nettis et al. investigated 47 patients with a history of urticaria after the ingestion of meals or products containing sodium benzoate, and only one patient had a generalized urticarial reaction to an oral challenge test of 50 mg of sodium benzoate.
                • Nebenwirkungen Benzoic acid occurs naturally free and bound as benzoic acid esters in many plant and animal species. Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around 0.05 %). Ripe fruits of several Vaccinium species (e.g., cranberry, V. vitis idaea; bilberry, V. macrocarpon) contain as much as 0.03 – 0.13 % free benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is also formed in apples after infection with the fungus Nectria galligena. Among animals, benzoic acid has been identified primarily in omnivorous or phytophageous species, e.g., in viscera and muscles of the Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) as well as in gland secretions of male muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) or Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus).
                  Gum benzoin contains up to 20 % of benzoic acid and 40% benzoic acid esters.
                • Toxikologie Four-generation reproductive and developmental toxicities of benzoic acid were examined using diets containing 0, 0.5, and 1% of benzoic acid fed to male and female rats housed together for eight weeks. The second generation was observed through its entire life cycle and the third and fourth generations were examined by autopsy. No changes in normal patterns of growth, reproduction, or lactation during life were recorded and no morphological abnormalities were observed from the autopsies.
                  Degradation pathways for benzoic acid also have been studied in detail and the results have supported the harmlessness of this substance. The total dose of benzoic acid is excreted within 10 to 14 hours and 75 to 80% is excreted within 6 hours. After conjugation with glycine, 90% of benzoic acid appears in the urine as hippuric acid. The rest forms a glucuronide,1-benzoylglucuronic acid. The lower aliphatic esters of benzoic acid are first hydrolyzed by esterase, which abounds in the intestinal wall and liver. The resulting benzoic acid subsequently is degraded in the usual manner.
                • Sicherheit(Safety) Ingested benzoic acid is conjugated with glycine in the liver to yield hippuric acid, which is then excreted in the urine; care should be taken when administering benzoic acid to patients with chronic liver disease. Benzoic acid is a gastric irritant, and a mild irritant to the skin. It is also a mild irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes. Allergic reactions to benzoic acid have been reported, although a controlled study indicated that the incidence of urticaria in patients given benzoic acid is no greater than in those given a lactose placebo. It has been reported that asthmatics may become adversely affected by benzoic acid contained in some antiasthma drugs.
                  The WHO acceptable daily intake of benzoic acid and other benzoates, calculated as benzoic acid, has been set at up to 5 mg/kg body-weight. The minimum lethal human oral dose of benzoic acid is 500 mg/kg body-weight.
                  LD50 (cat, oral): 2 g/kg
                  LD50 (dog, oral): 2 g/kg
                  LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.46 g/kg
                  LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.94 g/kg
                  LD50 (rat, oral): 1.7 g/kg
                • m?gliche Exposition Benzoic acid is used in production of plasticizers, benzoyl chloride, sodium benzoate and alkyl resins; in the manufacture of benzoates; in the manufacture of food preservatives; as a dye binder in calico printing; in curing of tobacco, flavors, perfumes, dentifrices; standard in analytical chemistry; antifungal agent.
                • Source Naturally occurs in cranberries, ligonberries (1,360 ppm), peppermint leaves (20–200 ppb), tea leaves, cassia bark, carob, blessed thistle, purple foxglove, jasmine, hyacinth, apples, tobacco leaves, daffodils, autumn crocus, prunes, anise seeds, ripe cloves, and wild black cherry tree bark (Duke, 1992; quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
                  Schauer et al. (1999) reported benzoic acid in diesel fuel at a concentration of 1,260 μg/g. Identified as an oxidative degradation product in the headspace of a used engine oil (10–30W) after 4,080 miles (Levermore et al., 2001).
                  The gas-phase tailpipe emission rate from California Phase II reformulated gasoline-powered automobile equipped with a catalytic converter was 124 μg/km (Schauer et al., 2002). Benzoic acid is a by-product of benzoyl peroxide used in the bleaching of freshly milled wheat flour. A maximum benzoic acid concentration of 16 ppm was reported after 12 h of bleaching. The concentration decreased to 6 ppm after 3 months (Saiz et al., 2001).
                  A liquid swine manure sample collected from a waste storage basin contained benzoic acid at a concentration of 4.0 mg/L (Zahn et al., 1997).
                • Environmental Fate Biological. Benzoic acid may degrade to catechol if it is the central metabolite whereas, if protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) is the central metabolite, the precursor is 3- hydroxybenzoic acid (Chapman, 1972). Other compounds identified following degradation of benzoic acid to catechol include cis,cis-muconic acid, (+)-muconolactone, 3-oxoadipate enol lactone, and 3-oxoadipate (quoted, Verschueren, 1983). Pure microbial cultures hydroxylated benzoic acid to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (Smith and Rosazza, 1974). In activated sludge, 65.5% mineralized to carbon dioxide after 5 d (Freitag et al., 1985). Photolytic. Titanium dioxide suspended in an aqueous solution and irradiated with UV light (λ = 365 nm) converted benzoic acid to carbon dioxide at a significant rate (Matthews, 1986). An aqueous solution containing chlorine and irradiated with UV light (λ = 350 nm) converted benzoic acid to salicylaldehyde and unidentified chlorinated compounds (Oliver and Carey, 1977). A carbon dioxide yield of 10.2% was achieved when benzoic acid adsorbed on silica gel was irradiated with light (λ >290 nm) for 17 h (Freitag et al., 1985).
                  Brubaker and Hites (1998) measured the OH radical rate constant for benzoic acid between 333 and 363 K. The rate constants (x 1012 cm3/sec) were 0.42 and 0.66 at 333 K (two determinations), 0.84 at 343 K, and 0.72 at 363 K. In water, benzoic acid reacted with OH radicals at a rate of 1.2 x 1013/M·h at 25 °C (Armbrust, 2000).
                  Chemical/Physical. At an influent concentration of 1.0 g/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 89 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 183 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974). Ward and Getzen (1970) investigated the adsorption of aromatic acids on activated carbon under acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions. The amount of benzoic acid (10-4 M) adsorbed by carbon at pH values of 3.0, 7.0, and 11.0 were 49.7, 11.2, and 2.5%, respectively. Similarly, at influent concentrations of 1.0, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mg/L, the respective GAC adsorption capacities were 130, 51, 19, and 7.3 mg/g at pH 3.0 and 54, 0.76, 0.01, and 0.002 mg/g at pH 7.0 At pH 9.0 and influent concentrations of 10 and 1.0 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities were 21 and 0.008, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).
                • Lager Aqueous solutions of benzoic acid may be sterilized by autoclaving or by filtration.
                  A 0.1% w/v aqueous solution of benzoic acid has been reported to be stable for at least 8 weeks when stored in polyvinyl chloride bottles, at room temperature.
                  When added to a suspension, benzoic acid dissociates, with the benzoate anion adsorbing onto the suspended drug particles. This adsorption alters the charge at the surface of the particles, which may in turn affect the physical stability of the suspension. The addition of sodium azide has been shown to increase the stability of benzoic acid in skin permeation experiments.
                  The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
                • Versand/Shipping UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9—Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
                • l?uterung methode For use as a volumetric standard, analytical reagent grade benzoic acid should be carefully fused to ca 130o (to dry it) in a platinum crucible, and then powdered in an agate mortar. Benzoic acid has been crystallised from boiling water (charcoal), aqueous acetic acid, glacial acetic acid, *C6H6, aqueous EtOH, pet ether (b 60-80o), and from EtOH solution by adding water. It is readily purified by fractional crystallisation from its melt and by sublimation in a vacuum at 80o. The S-benzylisothiuronium salt has m 167o (from EtOH/H2O). [Beilstein 9 IV 273.]
                • Inkompatibilit?ten Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, caustics, ammonia, amines, isocyanates. Dust forms an explosive mixture with air.
                • Inkompatibilit?ten Undergoes typical reactions of an organic acid, e.g. with alkalis or heavy metals. Preservative activity may be reduced by interaction with kaolin.
                • Waste disposal Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
                • Regulatory Status GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM and IV injections, irrigation solutions, oral solutions, suspensions, syrups and tablets, rectal, topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
                Benzoic acid Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
                Upstream-Materialien
                Downstream Produkte
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                65-85-0, Benzoic acid Verwandte Suche:
                • Benzyl acid
                • uniseptbza
                • FEMA 2131
                • CARBOXYBENZENE
                • DRACYLIC ACID
                • BENZENE CARBOXYLIC ACID
                • Benzenemethonic acid
                • benzeneformic acid
                • 'LGC' (2405)
                • 'LGC' (2606)
                • 'LGC' (4003)
                • METTLER TOLEDO CALIBRATION SUBSTANCE ME 18555
                • AKOS BBS-00003711
                • ACIDUM BENZOICUM
                • VEVOVITALL(R)
                • RARECHEM AL BO 0012
                • PUROX B
                • oracylic acid
                • PHENYLFORMIC ACID
                • phenyl carboxylic acid
                • BenzoicAcidGr
                • BENZOIC ACID, REAG.
                • BENZOIC ACID, PHARMA
                • Benzoic acid, for analysis ACS, 99.6%
                • Benzoic acid, for analysis, 99.5%
                • BENZOIC ACID PRIMARY STANDARD
                • BENZOIC ACID REAGENT (ACS)
                • benzoic acid solution
                • mettler toledotm calibration substance me 18555,benzoic acid
                • BENZOICACID,CRYSTAL,REAGENT,ACS
                • BENZOICACID,CRYSTAL,USP,EP,BP,JP
                • BENZOICACID,REAGENTSPECIAL,ACS
                • Benzoic acid 99.5+%
                • BENZOIC ACID (RG)
                • benzenecarbonic acid
                • benzenemonocarbonic acid
                • benzenemonocarboxylic acid
                • BENZOICACIDANDITSCOMMONSALTS
                • BENZOESAEURE TECHNISCH
                • Benzoesure
                • Benzoic acid, ACS, 99.5% min
                • Benzoic Acid Zone Refined (number of passes:20)
                • BENZOIC ACID CRYSTAL
                • Benzoic acid, 99+% , typically 99.6%
                • BENZOIC ACID extrapure AR
                • Benzoic Acid, Crystal, Reagent
                • Benzoic acid, 99%, extra pure
                • Benzoic acid, 99.5%, for analysis
                • Benzoic acid, 99.6%, for analysis ACS
                • Benzoic acid, for analysis
                • Benzoic acid, for analysis ACS
                • NA-9094
                • BENZOIC ACID
                • Benzoic Acid, Acs Min
                • Benzoic Acid Zone Refined
                • Benzoic acid in Petroleum ether
                • Benzoic acid ,99%
                • Benzoic acid, synthesis grade