Aspartam Produkt Beschreibung
- Englisch Name:Aspartame
Aspartam physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
- Schmelzpunkt: :242-248 °C
- alpha :15.5 º (c=4, 15N formic acid)
- Siedepunkt: :436.08°C (rough estimate)
- Dichte :1.2051 (rough estimate)
- Brechungsindex :14.5 ° (C=4, 15mol/L Formic Acid)
- storage temp. :2-8°C
- L?slichkeit :Sparingly soluble or slightly soluble in water and in ethanol (96 per cent), practically insoluble in hexane and in methylene chloride.
- pka :pKa 3.19±0.01 (H2O t=25.0 I=0.100(NaCl))(Approximate);7.87±0.02(H2O t=25.0 I=0.100(NaCl))(Approximate)
- Aggregatzustand :Powder
- Farbe :White
- Geruch (Odor) :odorless with a sweet taste
- PH :pH(8g/l, 25℃) : 4.5～6.0
- Wasserl?slichkeit :Soluble in formic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide. Sparingly soluble in water and ethanol.
- Merck :14,839
- BRN :2223850
- Stabilit?t: :Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- InChIKey :IAOZJIPTCAWIRG-QWRGUYRKSA-N
- CAS Datenbank :22839-47-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA chemische Informationen :L-Phenylalanine, L-.alpha.-aspartyl-, 2-methyl ester (22839-47-0)
Aspartame Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden
S22:Staub nicht einatmen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
- Beschreibung Aspartame is the most popular artificial sweetener in the United States. It is sold as sweeteners such as NutraSweet and Equal, but it is also incorporated into thousands of food products.
- Chemische Eigenschaften Aspartame occurs as an off white, almost odorless crystalline powder with an intensely sweet taste.
- Chemische Eigenschaften white powder or tablets
Aspartame (N-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, 3-amino-N-(a-carbomethoxy-
phenethyl)-succinamic acid-N-methyl ester) is an intense sweetener widely
used in foods and beverages. Its solubility in water is approximately 10 g/L at room
temperature. Aspartame is not fully stable under common processing and storage
conditions of foods and beverages with the highest stability around pH 4.3.
Aspartame is about 200 times sweeter than sucrose with a clean, but slightly
lingering sweetness. It is used as the single sweetener, but often also in blends with other intense sweeteners owing to synergistic taste enhancement and taste quality
improvement often seen in such blends.
In the European Union, aspartame is approved as E 951 for a large number of food applications. In the United States, it is approved as a multipurpose sweetener for food and beverage uses and it is also approved in many other countries.
- Chemische Eigenschaften Aspartame has no odor, but has an intense sweet taste. It is a high intensity sweetener, about 160 to 200 times sweeter than sucrose. Normal digestive processes convert aspartame to phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. Metabolism of aspartame in the body provides approximately 17 kJ (4 kcal)/g. The stability of aspartame is affected by moisture, pH and temperature. For a detailed description of this compound, refer to Burdock (1997).
- History Aspartame was discovered accidentally in 1965 during a search for drugs to treat gastric ulcers. James M. Schlatter, an organic chemist working for G. D. Searle & Company, was using aspartyl-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame) in a synthesis procedure and inadvertently got some of the compound on his hands.
- Verwenden Aspartame in powder form for limited uses such as cereals, powdered drinks, and chewing gum. When aspartame is used in baked goods and baking mixes, it should not exceed 0.5% by weight. Packages of the dry, free-fl owing aspartame are required to prominently display the sweetening equivalence in teaspoons of sugar.
- Verwenden Non-nutritive sweetener.
- Verwenden Aspartame is a high-intensity sweetener that is a dipeptide, provid- ing 4 cal/g. it is synthesized by combining the methyl ester of phenylalanine with aspartic acid, forming the compound n-l-alpha- aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester. it is approximately 200 times as sweet as sucrose and tastes similar to sugar. it is compara- tively sweeter at low usage levels and at room temperature. its mini- mum solubility is at ph 5.2, its isoelectric point. its maximum solubility is at ph 2.2. it has a solubility of 1% in water at 25°c. the solubility increases with temperature. aspartame has a certain insta- bility in liquid systems which results in a decrease in sweetness. it decomposes to aspartylphenylalanine or to diketropiperazine (dkp) and neither of these forms is sweet. the stability of aspartame is a function of time, temperature, ph, and water activity. maximum stability is at approximately ph 4.3. it is not usually used in baked goods because it breaks down at the high baking temperatures. it contains phenylalanine, which restricts its use for those afflicted with phenylketonuria, the inability to metabolize phenylalanine. uses include cold breakfast cereals, desserts, topping mixes, chew- ing gum, beverages, and frozen desserts. the usage level ranges from 0.01 to 0.02%.
- Verwenden A dipeptide ester about 160 times sweeter than sucrose in aqueous solution. A non-nutritive sweetener.
The chemical name for aspartame is L-aspartyl-L-phenylalamine methyl
It is a white crystalline powder and is about 200 times as sweet as sucrose. It is noted for a clean, sweet taste that is similar to that of sucrose.
Aspartame is the most widely used artificial sweetener in the world. It was approved by the FDA for use in the USA in 1981, and now is approved for use in several other countries of the world. One of the drawbacks of aspartame is its instability to heat and acid. Under acidic conditions aspartame slowly hydrolyzes leading to a loss of sweetness, chemical interaction, and microbial degradation. The shelf life of the aspartame-sweetened products with high water content is limited to about 6 months, after which it breaks down into its constituent components and loses its sweetening abilities. At elevated temperatures, solid aspartame slowly releases methanol to form aspartyl phenylalamine and the dioxopiperazine. This reaction is especially favored at neutral and alkaline pH values. Because of this reason, aspartame cannot be used in hot baking foods.
Another disadvantage of aspartame was noticed in the human digestive system. When the body ingests aspartame, it breaks down into its three constituent components: phenylalamine, aspartate, and methanol. The phenylalamine and aspartate are handled by enzymes in the stomach and in the small intestine, while the methanol is transported to the liver for detoxification. The metabolism of phenylalamine requires an enzyme that is not produced by a small proportion of the population having a genetic disorder called phenyl keton uria (PKU). Aspartame should be avoided by persons suffering from PKU. A warning to PKU sufferers on aspartame-containing products is required in many countries.
- synthetische By coupling the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid, and the esterification of the carboxyl group of the phenylalanine moiety to produce the methyl ester. This esterification can occur before or after coupling. The crystallized slurry is centrifuged and the resulting “wet-cake” is washed to remove impurities.
- Definition ChEBI: A dipeptide composed of methyl L-phenylalaninate and L-aspartic acid joined by a peptide linkage.
Aspartame is synthesized using the L enantiomer of phenylalanine. The L enantiomer is separated from the D enantiomer, the racemic mixture, by reacting it with acetic anhydride (CH32
- Vorbereitung Methode Aspartame is produced by coupling together L-phenylalanine (or Lphenylalanine methyl ester) and L-aspartic acid, either chemically or enzymatically. The former procedure yields both the sweet aaspartame and nonsweet β-aspartame from which the α-aspartame has to be separated and purified. The enzymatic process yields only α-aspartame.
- Biotechnologische Produktion Aspartame is produced from L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine and methanol or alternatively L-phenylalanine methyl ester. The standard process uses common chemical methods of peptide synthesis. Enzymatic coupling of the two amino acids is also possible. N-formyl-L-aspartic acid and L- or D.L-phenylalanine methyl ester can be condensed to aspartame by thermolysin-like proteases. The formylated aspartame can be deformylated chemically or with a formylmethionyl peptide deformylase to yield the sweetener.The enzymatic coupling does not require L-phenylalanine but can start from the racemic product obtained in chemical synthesis, and the remaining D-phenylalanine can be racemized again.
Production processes based on fermentation are available for the two main components, aspartic acid and phenylalanine.
- Pharmazeutische Anwendungen Aspartame is used as an intense sweetening agent in beverage products, food products, and table-top sweeteners, and in pharmaceutical preparations including tablets, powder mixes, and vitamin preparations. It enhances flavor systems and can be used to mask some unpleasant taste characteristics; the approximate sweetening power is 180–200 times that of sucrose.
Unlike some other intense sweeteners, aspartame is metabolized in the body and consequently has some nutritive value: 1 g provides approximately 17 kJ (4 kcal). However, in practice, the small quantity of aspartame consumed provides a minimal nutritive effect.
- Sicherheitsprofil Human systemic effects byingestion: allergic dermatitis. Experimental reproductiveeffects. When heated to decomposition it emits toxicfumes of NOx.
- Sicherheit(Safety) Aspartame is widely used in oral pharmaceutical formulations, beverages, and food products as an intense sweetener, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic material. However, the use of aspartame has been of some concern owing to the formation of the potentially toxic metabolites methanol, aspartic acid, and phenylalanine. Of these materials, only phenylalanine is produced in sufficient quantities, at normal aspartame intake levels, to cause concern. In the normal healthy individual any phenylalanine produced is harmless; however, it is recommended that aspartame be avoided or its intake restricted by those persons with phenylketonuria.
The WHO has set an acceptable daily intake for aspartame at up to 40 mg/kg body-weight. Additionally, the acceptable daily intake of diketopiperazine (an impurity found in aspartame) has been set by the WHO at up to 7.5 mg/kg body-weight.
A number of adverse effects have been reported following the consumption of aspartame, particularly in individuals who drink large quantities (up to 8 liters per day in one case) of aspartame-sweetened beverages. Reported adverse effects include: headaches; grand mal seizure;memory loss;gastrointestinal symptoms; and dermatological symptoms. However, scientifically controlled peer-reviewed studies have consistently failed to produce evidence of a causal effect between aspartame consumption and adverse health events. Controlled and thorough studies have confirmed aspartame’s safety and found no credible link between consumption of aspartame at levels found in the human diet and conditions related to the nervous system and behavior, nor any other symptom or illness. Aspartame is well documented to be nongenotoxic and there is no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic.
Although aspartame has been reported to cause hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children, a double-blind controlled trial of 48 preschool-age children fed diets containing a daily intake of 38 ± 13 mg/kg body-weight of aspartame for 3 weeks showed no adverse effects attributable to aspartame, or dietary sucrose, on children’s behavior or cognitive function.
- Stoffwechselwegen The rate of aspartame degradation is faster in a phosphate buffer solution than in a citrate buffer solution at the same pH and buffer concentration. The primary mechanism by which aspartame degrades, the formation of diketo piperazine, involves the nucleophilic attack of carbonyl by the free amine, which requires proton transfer.
- Lager Aspartame is stable in dry conditions. In the presence of moisture, hydrolysis occurs to form the degradation products L -aspartyl-Lphenylalanine and 3-benzyl-6-carboxymethyl-2,5-diketopiperazine with a resulting loss of sweetness. A third-degradation product is also known, β-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester. For the stability profile at 258℃ in aqueous buffers.
Stability in aqueous solutions has been enhanced by the addition of cyclodextrins, and by the addition of polyethylene glycol 400 at pH 2. However, at pH 3.5–4.5 stability is not enhanced by the replacement of water with organic solvents.
Aspartame degradation also occurs during prolonged heat treatment; losses of aspartame may be minimized by using processes that employ high temperatures for a short time followed by rapid cooling.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container, in a cool, dry place.
- Inkompatibilit?ten Differential scanning calorimetry experiments with some directly compressible tablet excipients suggests that aspartame is incompatible with dibasic calcium phosphate and also with the lubricant magnesium stearate. Reactions between aspartame and sugar alcohols are also known.
- Regulatory Status Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe and in the USA. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral powder for reconstitution, buccal patch, granules, syrups, and tablets). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Aspartame Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
- Firmenname：Chengdu XiYa Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
- Edge Rate：57
- Firmenname：Shanghai Boyle Chemical Co., Ltd.
- Telefon：Mr Qiu:021-50182298(Demestic market) Miss Xu：021-50180596（Abroad market）
- Edge Rate：55
- Firmenname：J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.
- Telefon：400-666-7788 010-82848833-
- Edge Rate：76
- Firmenname：Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
- Telefon：400-660-8290 21-61259100-
- Edge Rate：62
- Firmenname：TAIYUAN RHF CO.,LTD.
- Telefon：+86 351 7031519
- Fax：+86 351 7031519
- Edge Rate：56
- Firmenname：TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd.
- Telefon：021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
- Edge Rate：81
- Firmenname：Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd.
- Edge Rate：62
- Firmenname：Energy Chemical
- Telefon：400-005-6266 021-58432009
- Edge Rate：61
- Firmenname：GL Biochem (Shanghai) Ltd
- Telefon：86-21-61263452 (tel), 86-13641803416（mobile）
- Edge Rate：64
- Firmenname：Beijing Ouhe Technology Co., Ltd
- Telefon：13552068683 010-82967028-
- Edge Rate：60
22839-47-0, Aspartame Verwandte Suche:
- 1,6-Dichlor-1,6-didesoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chlor-4-desoxy-α-D-galaktose Kresoxim-methyl 3-Phenyl-L-alanin Parathion-methyl (ISO) Methylbenzoylformiat D-Phenylalanin Methylacetat Methyl Methylacrylat N-Glycylalanin 1-Methyl-N-(N-formyl-L-α-aspartyl)-3-phenyl-L-alaninat Diethylammoniumacetat Succinamidsure L-2-Amino-3-phenylpropan-1-ol Benzolpropanol-carbamat Methyl-4-hydroxybenzoat Thiophanat-methyl Bensulfuron methyl
- Protein sugar
- ASP-PHE METHYL ESTER
- (S)-3-AMINO-N-((S)-1-METHOXYCARBONYL-2-PHENYL-ETHYL)-SUCCINAMIC ACID
- N-L-ALPHA-ASPARTYL-L-PHENYLALANINE 1-METHYL ESTER
- N-L-ALPHA-ASPARTYL-L-PHENYLALANINE METHYL ESTER
- ASPARTAME, 500MG, NEAT
- Aspartame, Granular
- ASPARTAME, PHARMA
- L-Phenylalanine, L-.alpha.-aspartyl-, 2-methyl ester
- 3-amino-3-[(1-methoxycarbonyl-2-phenyl-ethyl)carbamoyl]propanoic acid
- aspartylphenylalanine methyl este
- succinamic acid, 3-amino-n-(alpha-carboxyphenethyl)-, n-methyl ester, stereoismer
- ASPARTAME NF
- ASPARTAME POWDER USP
- Methyl ester N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine
- Asp-Phe-OMe, Aspartame, N-(L-α-Aspartyl)-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
- Asp-Phe methyl ester, Aspartame, N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
- Asp-Phe methyl ester, Asp-Phe-OMe, Aspartame, N-(L-α-Aspartyl)-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
- aspartyl-L-phenylalamine methyl ester
- N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalamine methyl ester(α-APM)
- 3-amino-4-[(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)-methylamino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
- N-(L-α-Aspartyl)-L-phenylalanine methyl ester
- ASPARTAME POWDER
- ASPARTAM USP23
- N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester
- L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester,98%